Copyright & disclaimer

Copyright information

The content on this site is copyrighted by the Institute for Work & Health (IWH), 1996-2024. All rights reserved. Your use of this site is subject to the following terms.

By using the site, you are accepting and agreeing to these terms. Please check back periodically as these terms may change from time to time.

The information on this website is provided for educational, research and information purposes, and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License:


Creative Commons 4.0 license


That means, unless otherwise specified, the information on this website, including newsletters, articles, abstracts, backgrounders and summaries, can be used and shared as long as IWH is credited as the source, the information is not modified, and the information is used for non-commercial purposes. If you wish to modify the information and/or use it for commercial purposes, please contact

If you do reprint, share, distribute or use the information on this website, we ask that you please let us know by emailing the nature of your use to We like to track how our research, tools and other information is being used in the broader community.

To emphasize again, the information on this site may not be sold or used for commercial purposes.

The Institute for Work & Health logo is a trademark of the Institute for Work & Health.

Disclaimer information

The information on the site is not to be taken as medical advice. Individuals seeking specific advice or assistance should contact their physician.

The user hereby agrees that the Institute for Work & Health, its research partners and funders, and any employees, consultants, officers, directors or agents and their respective organizations, will not be held liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, punitive or consequential damages that result in any way by your use, or that of your employer, insurer, patient, or care provider, of the information or techniques discussed. The user will make no claim nor take or continue any action or proceeding against any of them for contribution, indemnity, or reimbursement whether under the provisions of any statute, regulation or common law.

While the Institute makes reasonable efforts to ensure accuracy, the Institute makes no warranty, guarantee or representation as to accuracy, fitness or sufficiency of the material or information on this site and will not be liable for any errors or omissions in the material or the results obtained for their use.

Links to third party information is not an implied endorsement by the Institute for Work & Health and the Institute assumes no responsibility or liability for material on these sites.

The views expressed on this website are those of the Institute and do not necessarily reflect those of our core funder—the Province of Ontario and, more specifically, the Ministry of Labour, Immigration, Training and Skills Development. Nor do they necessarily reflect the views of the granting bodies that have funded individual Institute projects.